It’s a little deja-vu writing this title one year after a similar blog post on how to validate a COVID-19 assay at the start of the pandemic. In many ways, the challenges are similar: limited reagents/control material, and rising case counts. At least now, there is increasing support in the way of funding from the federal government that could help with monitoring and surveillance. I’m going to summarize the current methods available for detecting the Variants of Concern and emerging variants.
The principle method used by many is whole genome sequencing. It has the advantage of being able to comprehensively examine every letter (nucleotide) of the SARS-CoV-2 genome (30 kilobases long). At our institution, I’ve been working on the effort to sequence all of our positive specimens. While it is achievable, it is not simple nor feasible at most locations. Limitations include:
Other institutions have begun efforts to screen for variants of concern by detecting characteristic mutations. For instance, the N501Y mutation in the spike protein is common to the major Variants of Concern (UK B.1.1.7, Brazil P.1, and S Africa B.1.351) and E484K is present in the Brazil (P.1), S Africa (B.1.351) and New York Variant (B.1.526). Thus, several institutions (listed below) took approaches to 1) screen for these mutations and then 2) perform WGS sequentially.